ICT Benefits with TIP model

The technology integration planning model (TIP) is a planning approach integration strategy that helps implement teacher’s integration of ICT will be successful. The TIP model gives teachers a general approach to address the challenges involved in integrating technology. (Roblyer, 2006b)        This is reflected back to the use of Multimedia 3D software Kahootz. It is essential to develop lesson plans when incorporating ICT in the classroom to ensure it will be a successful teaching strategy. Roblyers model for implementing ICT integration and transformation is also effective for teachers who are just beginning to use ICT integration in the classroom which will make the process of developing new ways to incorporate technology in the classroom. This model was designed by Roblyer, 2006a and he developed a five phase model with set planning of each level of implementation to get which determine relative advantage, decide on objectives and assessments, design integration strategies, prepare the instructional environment and evaluate and revise integration strategies. (Roblyer, 2006a)

Overall Kahootz is a fantastic program to incorporate in lessons as it is motivational and practical for students as well as complying with the required ICT standards. Understanding Roblyers five stage strategy also makes the process of ICT integration more straightforward for teachers.

‘Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Models for Teachers’ was the topic for this weeks reading. The reading covered five different phases in which ICT can be integrated into the classroom. The overview for this reading was not just telling us ICT is beneficial but actually telling us how to integrate ICT in our classrooms. I think integrating ICT is helpful and beneficial for children and teachers. I feel all outcomes will differ and that children should have the opportunity to learn in all ways assessable to them.The smart classroom frame work is to help inspire teachers to engage ICT as a tool in the classroom, by obtaining a certificate level (2009). As teachers learn to be more confident with using ICT as a tool, this will lead to teachers achieving a pedagogical license.

 

Teachers need to realize that coming out of their comfort zone isn’t always a bad thing. Students will gain more learning if all teachers were to break out of their comfort zone and give children all opportunities in learning available to them.

“Don’t be afraid”

References:

Roblyer, M. (2006b) Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 36-52. Retrieved March 29, 2009, fromhttp://learning.griffith.edu.au/

“Don’t be afraid” References: Roblyer, M. (2006b) Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 36-52.

Roblyer, M. D. (2006b). 4 th Edition. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Pearson: New Jersey.

(Roblyer2006b. pg. 53). Roblyer, M. D. (2006a) Integrating Educational Technology into Education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., p. 53.

 

Department of Education, Training and the Arts. (2008). The Smart Classroom Professional Development Framework. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from Queensland Government website:http://education.qld.gov.au/smartclassrooms/pdf/pd-framework.pdf

A Science Lesson Plan Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter

SEASONS LESSON

An elementary science teaching lesson on the four seasons.  Includes printable teaching worksheets.

 

Content Targets

The four seasons, comparing and contrasting, description, writing.

 

Learning Objective

After reading about the different seasons, students will be able to brainstorm and identify defining characteristics of the seasons and create their own books based on these ideas.

 

Academic Language Focus

What it means to describe, compare and contrast seasons.

 

Grades

Kindergarten – 1st Grade – 2nd Grade – 3rd Grade

SEASONS LESSON PLAN

 

Lesson Materials

Introduction

Tell students that today we will be learning about the four seasons. Explain to students that we have seasons because of the tilt of the Earth as it rotates on its axis. Tell students that today we will be reading about the four seasons. Then we will talk about the things that define the four seasons.

 

Some great book selections:

The Reasons for Seasons (Gail Gibbons)

Four Seasons Make a Year (Anne Rockwell)

The Four Seasons (Mary Rius)

Four Seasons Series (Nuria Roca)

 

Body

Create a large table with butcher paper. Write the four seasons (summer, autumn, winter, spring) across the top and the following words as rows on the left side of the table: months, weather, holidays, and activities.

 

Write “Seasons in ______________ (name of location you are in)” as a title for the table.

 

Tell students that we will now brainstorm some facts about the four seasons. For each season, ask during which months does the season occur and the various holidays (include the dates) that fall in that season. Be sure to include multicultural holidays. Ask students what the weather is like and what activities they like to do during these seasons. Write down student ideas and prompt students for ideas read in the story.

 

Tell students that they will be making seasons books. Pass out the Season Names printable and the Season Pictures printable to each student. Pass out 5 sheets of plain white paper and one colored sheet of construction paper to each student. Explain to students that they will be coloring and cutting out the season names and season pictures.

 

On one page of white paper, the student will glue one season name and two matching season pictures. Model for students how to do this with one season. For example, ask students what two pictures would go with spring (flowers and a baby chick). When students complete this process for each season, they can draw a background and other relevant seasonal items on the picture, or finish the picture as a scene from the season. Students can refer to the class chart. They can write one to two sentences to describe the season at the bottom of each page.

 

The students will end up with four pages, one per season. They can create a cover page on white paper that includes a title, their name and a picture. This title page can be backed on colored construction paper. If possible, laminate the cover and bind the books with a heavy-duty stapler. Or students can simply bind their own books by hole-punching each page and using yarn to tie the pages together.

 

Be sure to place the finished books in the class library for students to read!

 

Closure

Ask students to tell a partner what their favorite season is and why. Give students time to read their books to a friend or share their season books with the class.

Reference: Season’s Lesson. Instructor Web. Retrieved on June 5th, 2012 fromhttp://www.instructorweb.com/lesson/seasons.asp

 

Construction of Failure and Success Concepts

In reviewing to the concepts of using ICT in classroom, considering the use of IWB is important aspects in teaching and learning.

“One of the interesting generalizations that emerge from this analysis is that the more positive interpreters
of ICT perceive it as providing novel affordances which were not available to teachers
in the past, while the more critical interpreters present ICT as a substitute for something which
already existed in the system. Thus, for example a positive interpretation of the computer as “a
book” focuses on the new affordance to access hundreds or thousands of books that the student
would otherwise not have access to. A negative interpretation would lament the inadequacy of the
computer as a substitute for a physical book. The complexity revealed through this initial analysis
is extensive, and, for the rest of this paper, we focus on the interpretive flexibility of a single ICT
artifact, the interactive whiteboard (IWB).” Thus, ICT provides a s a resource for teachers and student for displaying e-resource applications. The importance in ICT is shown crucial to the learning and activities for the classroom.
The IWB is a whiteboard-based computer display. The display is manipulated through touch or
other pointing devices which allow activating various applications, as well as writing and saving.
It is possible to save whole lessons in multimedia, including the teacher’s voice and the written
text. IWB based interactive games allow shifting of images on the board, hiding and revealing
various elements, and more. The distributors of the IWBs develop or purchase appropriate lesson
plans and course materials for the IWB, and teachers who develop such materials are encouraged
to upload and share them (Beauchamp, 2004; Smart, n.d.) Studies of successful IWB use emphasize
its effect on student attainment when it was used to teach numeracy and literacy in small
groups. On the other hand, the IWB discourages cooperative learning in small groups and is less
effective in special populations (Lewin et al., 2008)

Elgali Z. &  Kalman Y. M. (2010). The Construction of Failure and Success Concepts in K-12 ICT Integration.Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects,(6), 286-287. Retrieved on June 6th, 2013 from http://www.academia.edu/1331564/The_Construction_of_Failure_and_Success_Concepts_in_K-12_ICT_Integration

 

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Factors of Using ICT in classroom

Positive factors Negative factors
makes my lessons more interesting makes my lessons more difficult
makes my lessons more diverse makes my lessons less fun
has improved the presentation of materials for my lessons reduces pupils’ motivation
gives me more prestige impairs pupils’ learning
makes my administration more efficient restricts the content of the lessons
gives me more confidence is not enjoyable
makes the lessons more fun takes up too much time
enhances my career prospects is counter-productive due to insufficient technical resources
help[s me to discuss teaching ideas

Teachers’ attitudes to many of these factors will depend upon how easy they perceive using ICT to be on a personal level as well as for teaching in the classroom.

According to Davis et al’s technology acceptance model shown in Figure 1, the more positive the responses to the above factors of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, then the more positive the attitudes of teachers will be to the use of ICT and the more likely they will be to use ICT in their teaching. One major aim of our research project was to investigate the reliability of this model using experienced ICT teachers, and to find out which of the factors were considered to be important to the sample of teachers.

Reference:

Cox M., Preston C. and Cox K. (2000). What Factors Support or Prevent teachers from Using ICT in their Clasroom? Education-line database. Retrieved from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001304.htm 

Grammar activities for TESOL learners

ESOL Grammar Activities

I found Chris Jackson blogs usefulf or my first year student learning. I’ve added a new page for ESOL Grammar Activities to the Skills for Life website. Like the other activities pages, this contains direct link both to our quizzes and to quizzes on other people’s websites.

This change reflects a change in some of my teaching this year. I am supporting a number of learners who don’t speak English natively and I want to address some of their difficulties with grammar. In analysing their difficulties in initial assessment, there were a number of common factors: endings to words (both nouns and verbs), articles (or, more correctly, determiners), prepositions and conjunctions. Of course the internet is alive with quizzes and other activities for grammar for English learners, but I’ve not previously found them greatly useful for this group of learners. Some of these people may have been to school in the UK for at least some of the time, some may not be literate in their first language, some may not have been to ESOL classes. Moreover the mistakes are presented in English literacy, for me in their main courses, and so perhaps a literacy approach rather than an ESOL approach is needed.

Pitfalls in ICT

Possible pitfalls to the deployment of ICT include:

  • the ability of educational systems, curriculum development to keep pace with ICT innovation is problematic;
  • the individualized role of the teacher can be diminished where more and more material is offered via a centralized content vendor. There could be a loss of teaching individuality;
  • other resources have to be sacrificed because of the enormous monetary expense that ICT necessitates;
  • a myriad of technical issues which often seem overwhelming; and,
  • teachers are often ignorant of what is available and also how to use the technology they already have. There seems to be too little attention in training teachers on how to best exploit ICT for teaching.

Computer acquisition and implementation in educational institutions must be paired with visionary pedagogical insight. Action plans should be devised as to just how ICTs can enhance teaching and learning. There has been much debate as to what we can realistically expect computer technology to contribute to the learning process.

Reference:

The Role of ICT in Learning. (2013) International Conference  of Principals. JH Online. Retrieved on June 1st 2013 from  http://www.icponline.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=86%3Athe-role-of-ict-in-learning&catid=27%3Aeducation&Itemid=47&vm=r

 

 

Factors impacting ICT in teachings

Watson, D. M (2001) in his paper charts a series of experiences and failures in the UK, and highlights the unresolved dichotomy of purpose about why Information and Communication Technology (ICT) should be used in education. Understanding the problematic of using Information Technologies demands a consideration of some more fundamental educational issues. ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change, change in teaching style, change in learning approaches, and change in access to information. Yet the rhetoric for change has been too associated with the symbolic function of technology in society, which sits uncomfortably with teachers’ professional judgements. So educational computing, it would appear, has yet to find its own voice. Obviously, access to ICT resources is another key factor. The majority of teachers use the ICT resources available rather than take the initiative of buying ones relevant to their own subject. This can result in pedagogy being determined by ICT resources rather than by the teacher and the subject. For example, many teachers report using electronic whiteboards which were purchased for the whole school. Only a few teachers report using subject-specific software which links directly to the content of the curriculum. It may be that many teachers accept the uses of ICT imposed on them by senior management. This also influences the research that is carried out. Naturalistic studies – that is, those studies that investigate how teachers use their existing ICT resources –are often only able to focus on a limited range of uses. This has meant that many researchers have had to introduce specific ICT resources into a school in order to study the effects of ICT use, which can influence teachers’ attitude to and uptake of the resource.
In spite of teachers often being limited by the ICT resources available to them, there are many examples in the research literature of teachers having a good understanding of a particular resource. This can be influenced by the way in which ICT relates to their
subject. Science teachers report that their main use of ICT is for simulations and modelling, whereas English teachers tend to use word-processing and presentation software. These teachers’ use of ICT may be quite regular, but only rarely includes the use of other
applications which they are less familiar with. It is clear that teachers’ confidence affects which applications they use, even among those teachers who gained a degree of confidence using one or two familiar applications.
This lack of confidence may result in some teachers adopting the role of facilitator, when the research evidence suggests that the role of the teacher in organising classroom activities remains crucial. One example concerns the benefits of collaboration between pupils.
Pupils using ICT in pairs, in groups or as a whole class, through the use of an interactive whiteboard, can provide explanations of topics, which enables teachers to monitor their progress. Although such work takes place without the use of ICT through, for example, group work in primary schools and laboratory work in secondary schools, there are many reports of pupils understanding being improved through them having to make their explanations explicit and by sharing them with others. There is also evidence,
however, from a number of studies, which shows that if pupils are put in pairs or groups but their learning tasks
are not planned on this basis, then no additional benefit for pupils’ attainment is achieved.
If ICT is to have a positive effect on pupils’ attainment, then the technology should support the underlying instructional approaches.The effective use of ICT should not mean the absence of organised structure; rather, effective use relies
on structure in order that pupils can develop their own meaningful representations of knowledge using ICT.
The overall conclusion from the research literature is that ICT is used effectively and has an impact on learning
where teachers are able to appreciate that interactivity requires a new approach to pedagogy. Teachers need to employ proactive and responsive strategies in order to support, guide and facilitate learning. They need to monitor progress and maintain a focus on subject learning, by structuring activities carefully and providing focused tasks.
It may be that there is a fundamental misunderstanding held by many teachers and teacher trainers – teachers who have insufficient knowledge of the contribution which ICT can make to pupils’ learning can assume that the main tasks are to familiarise themselves with the software, prepare a worksheet for pupils to show how to operate the program, and then use the program in their lesson. But a
major part of effective use of ICT lies in the planning, preparation and follow-up of lessons, and in particular the
pedagogical thinking that links teaching style, the selection of resources, the activities and the learning objectives.
It is clear from this research that in order for the majority of teachers to extend their range of uses of ICT
substantially, they need significant time to develop their pedagogy as well as their ICT skills. Given the limitations
on resources and the demands on teachers’ time, this may be difficult to achieve in the foreseeable future. An
alternative approach might be to encourage teachers to focus only on those ICT resources which are most relevant to them and their subject.

 

 

Too many people have been talking about learning stylesresearch lately for me to try to cite them all here. Many have commented on the Learning Styles Don’t Exist video, for example. Via Karyn Romeis and Stephen Downes, I found two lengthy reviews of learning styles research:

These are two related reports with some shared content. The first is a literature review of 13 often-cited learning styles; the second summarizes that research and focuses more on how it can inform practice.

 

Reference

Cox M.,  Webb M.,Abbott C., Blakeley BV.,  Beauchamp T. and  Rhodes V. (2003) ICT and Pedagogy.  London: Dfes Publication. Retrieved on May 26th 2013 from https://wiki.inf.ed.ac.uk/twiki/pub/ECHOES/ICT/ict_pedagogy_summary.pdf

 

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., and Ecclestone, K. (2004) Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Learning and Skills Research Centre.Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/September-October%202010/the-myth-of-learning-full.html
Riener, C. and Willingham, D. (2010) The Myth of Learning Styles. Change Magazine, Sept-Oct.
Rosenthal, R. and Jacobson, L. (1992) Pygmalion in the Classroom, New York, NY: Irvington.

Effective use of ICT skills and literacy

A review of the literature reveals that there is little research into either pedagogy for ICT as a subject or into
the process through which skills and understanding in ICT develop in children (Webb, 2002). Wood (2001) argues that greater knowledge and understanding of ICT processes are required in addition to skills if pupils are to make effective use of ICT, but many teachers appear to assume that no input is required from teachers during lessons, and that pupils will learn from the computer or from each other.
3 Perinciples of UDL Universal design Learning caters for diverse learners using multiple means of representation to acquire knowledge and information. Multiples means of expression to demonstrate what and how they think, multiple means of engagement to engage and interact in learning environment  The approach of Universal Learning design helps student to learn in multiple styles, method, learning styles and learning environment. This motivated self-directed learning, indirect unplanned learning, enhances self-esteem.
Webb (2003) suggests that two key elements of the content understanding required for ICT-based problem
solving (a key aspect of ICT) are: the concepts and techniques of representing data, knowledge and processes; and the capabilities of types of software application. These may be best addressed by pedagogies based on the theory of Anderson et al. (1995) and on the minimalism theory of Carroll (1998). These pedagogies need to be developed by teachers, and are likely to incorporate carefully designed practical tasks with appropriate scaffolding, as well as techniques to develop understanding. Just as in mathematics and science, where children are expected to develop their understanding of concepts as well as their numeracy and ability to conduct experiments, so in ICT children need to develop their understanding of ICT systems and processes as well as the skills to use ICT.

 

Reference

Cox M.,  Webb M.,Abbott C., Blakeley BV.,  Beauchamp T. and  Rhodes V(2003) ICT and Pedagogy.  London: Dfes Publication.Retrievd on May 26th, 2013 from https://wiki.inf.ed.ac.uk/twiki/pub/ECHOES/ICT/ict_pedagogy_summary.pdf

Approaches

The attach document writes about the approaches of ICT in classroom frequently used by teachers.

ICT_teacher_training_Valcke_et_al__2007__TATE

main approaches to ICT taken by teachers: weelookang inform the shift in pedagogy and integrating ICT into Education by UNESCO Bangkok

This diagram tpacktpack2picture from http://randysresources.wikispaces.com/file/view/tpack2.jpg/81246499/tpack2.jpg

source: http://www.unescobkk.org/education/ict/online-resources/features/ict-pedagogy/ clearly describe the integration in 3 approaches which made ICT use successful..
• Integrated approach: planning the use of ICT within the subject to enhance particular concepts and skills and improve pupils’ attainment. This involves a careful and considered review of the curriculum area, selecting the appropriate ICT resource which will contribute to the aims and objectives of the curriculum and scheme of work, and then integrating that use in relevant lessons.
• Enhancement approach: planning the use of an ICT resource which will enhance the existing topic through some aspect of the lessons and tasks. For example,using an electronic whiteboard for presenting theory about a topic. In this approach, the teacher plans to
complement the lesson with an innovative presentation method to promote class discussion and the visualisation of problems.
• Complementary approach: using an ICT resource to empower the pupils’ learning, for example by enabling them to improve their class work by taking notes on the computer, or by sending homework by email to the teacher from home, or by word processing
their homework.
All three approaches can enhance attainment, but the effects may be different. In the integrated approach, pupils’
learning is enhanced because they are confronted with challenges to their existing knowledge and given deeper
insights into the subject being studied. The enhancement approach could improve pupils’ learning through
presenting knowledge in new ways, promoting debates among pupils, and encouraging them to formulate their
own explanations. The complementary approach draws on the approach that suggests that learning can be enhanced
by reducing the mundane and repetitive aspects of tasks such as writing essays and homework by hand, freeing the learner to focus on more challenging and subject-focused tasks (see Kemmis et al., 1977).
These different types of use require the teacher to have an extensive knowledge of ICT and to be able to fit its use
either into their existing pedagogy or to extend their pedagogical knowledge so they can accommodate ICT effectively in their teaching. Mayer-Smith (1998) investigated the relationship between computers and views of mathematics from both individual constructivist and social constructivist perspectives. He argued that social constructivists – who believe that the learning context has a large impact on the learner – are more likely to take the view that computers alter the way we do mathematics.
Individual constructivists – people who believe that the main outcomes main outcomes are dependent on the individual learner
and not on the influences of the environment – would be more likely to say that computers change the mathematics
that we do. This means that some teachers would enhance their mathematics teaching by using an electronic whiteboard to demonstrate problems on the screen and stimulate class discussion (the enhancement approach),
while other teachers would choose ICT modelling to extend the mathematical models which pupils can construct and
investigate (the integrated approach).

 

Reference

Cox M.,  Webb M.,Abbott C., Blakeley BV.,  Beauchamp T. and  Rhodes V(2003) ICT and Pedagogy.  London: Dfes Publication.Retrievd on May 26th, 2013 from https://wiki.inf.ed.ac.uk/twiki/pub/ECHOES/ICT/ict_pedagogy_summary.pdf

Braak J.V. (2007). ICT teacher training: Evaluation of the curriculum and training approaches., 23 (2007), 795–808. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/526705/ICT_teacher_training_Evaluation_of_the_curriculum_and_training_approaches

Dwyer, D. C., Ringstaff, C., & Sandholtz, J. H. (2008). The Evolution of Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs and Practices in High-Access-to-Technology Classrooms First–Fourth Year Findings. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow Research Teacher Beliefs and Practices Part I: Patterns of Change, Report Number 8. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/euro/pdfs/acotlibrary/rpt8.pdf

 

 

ICT advantages

In this review and in the companion report on ICT and attainment (Cox and Abbott, 2004) there is extensive evidence of ICT contributing to improved learning by pupils. The benefits include: enabling pupils to challenge their preconceptions; giving them the means of providing more powerful explanations; helping them develop better reasoning strategies; developing their confidence in their ability to communicate their knowledge to others; helping them achieve more autonomy in their learning; and helping them relate their learning in a wider context. However, all the evidence shows that these benefits are dependent on the way in which the teacher selects and organises the ICT resources, and how this use is integrated into other activities in the classroom and
beyond. The crucial component remains the teacher and their pedagogical approaches.
Examples of the specific uses of ICT most frequently reported in the literature include:
Simulations and modelling in science and other subjects.
• Modelling environments and other software in mathematics.
• Word-processing for language and literacy.
• The internet to extend pupils’ subject knowledge.
• Presentation software to develop pupils’ presentation and literacy skills.
• Interactive whiteboards to promote class discussions, and pupils’ explanations and presentation skills.
Teachers’ pedagogical approaches are in turn affected by a number of key factors.
First, they are affected by knowledge about their own subject. There is a clear distinction between teachers
who choose ICT resources to fit within a particular topic and those who choose resources merely to present
pupils’ work in a new way, without any direct application to the topic. The evidence shows that when teachers use
their knowledge both of the subject and also of how pupils understand the subject, their use of ICT has a more direct effect on pupils’ attainment.
Reference

Cox M.,  Webb M.,Abbott C., Blakeley BV.,  Beauchamp T. and  Rhodes V(2003) ICT and Pedagogy.  London: Dfes Publication.Retrievd on May 26th, 2013 from https://wiki.inf.ed.ac.uk/twiki/pub/ECHOES/ICT/ict_pedagogy_summary.pdf

 

 

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